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  • Recognised by professional associations as a chronic disease which requires long-term management1-3
  • Influenced by physiological, psychological, genetic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors4-7
  • Associated with more than 195 complications8


Bray GA, Kim KK, Wilding JPH; on behalf of the World Obesity Federation. Obesity: a chronic relapsing progressive disease process. A position statement of the World Obesity Federation. Obes Rev. 2017;18(7):715–723.


American Medical Association. AMA adopts new policies on second day of voting at annual meeting. Cision.,c9430649. Published June 18, 2013. Accessed June 5, 2019.


European Association for the Study of Obesity. 2015 Milan Declaration: a call to action on obesity. Accessed June 5, 2019.


Wright SM, Aronne LJ. Causes of obesity. Abdom Imaging. 2012;37(5):730–732.


Badman MK, Flier JS. The gut and energy balance: visceral allies in the obesity wars. Science. 2005;307:1909–1914.


Tanaka T, Ngwa JS, van Rooij FJA, et al. Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:1395–1402.


Kumar S, Kelly AS. Review of childhood obesity: from epidemiology, etiology, and comorbidities to clinical assessment and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc. 2017;92:251–265.


Yuen M, Earle R, Kdambi N, et al. A systematic review and evaluation of current evidence reveals 195 obesity-associated disorders (OBAD). Abstract presented at: Obesity Week, November 2, 2016; New Orleans, Louisiana. Abstract T-P-3166.


Caterson ID, Alfadda AA, Auerbach P, et al. Gaps to bridge: misalignment between perception, reality and actions in obesity. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2019;1–11.